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IHP 525 Module Two Problem Set

Five-City Project. The Stanford Five-City Project is a comprehensive community health educationstudy of five moderately sized Northern California towns. Multiple-risk factor intervention strategies were randomly applied to two of the communities. The other three cities served as controls. Outline the design of this study in schematic form.

Multi-risk Factor intervention strategies randomly applie

  1. fact that only 25 of the 100 questionnaires were completed and returned?

The concern would be that some of the employees didn’t want to participate in the questionnaires and just left it blank which led to misinterpretation

Employee counseling. An employer offers its employees a program that will provide up to four free psychological counseling sessions per calendar year. To evaluate satisfaction with this service, the counseling office mails questionnaires to every 10th employee who used the benefit in the prior year. There were 1000 employees who used the benefit. Therefore, 100 surveys were sent out. However, only 25 of the potential respondents completed and returned their questionnaire.

  1. Describe the population for the study.

The population is the 1,000 employees who used the benefit or had access to it.

  • Describe the sample.

The sample is the 25 responders that completed the survey.

  • What concern is raised by the fact that only 25 of the 100 questionnaires were completed and returned?

The concern would be that some of the employees didn’t want to participate in the questionnaires and just left it blank which led to misinterpretation of data, and 25% was completed.

Air samples. An environmental study looked at suspended particulate matter in air samples (µg/m3) at two different sites. Data are listed here. Construct a stem plot of for each site (here is where side-by-side stem plots would be helpful but not required) and then compare the distribution of suspended

particulate matter between the two sites (remember to mention center and spread). No calculations necessary.

Site 1:6822363242242838
Site 2:3638394036343332

:           6:

8:         6:

What would you report? What is an appropriate measure of central location for data that are really skewed? What is an appropriate measure of spread for data that are really skewed?

Site 1 has a larger range, while site 2 has a range of 8, site 1 spreads from 22-68 and site 2 spreads from 32-40, and also has a higher outlier which is 68. The mean for site 1 is 36.25 while the mean for site 2 is 36. The median for site 1 is 35 and site 2 is 36. Both sites have the same mean and have negative skewed results.

Melanoma treatment. A study by Morgan and coworkers used genetically modified white blood cells to treat patients with melanoma who had not responded to standard treatments. In patients in whom the cells were cultured ex vivo for an extended period of time (cohort 1), the cell doubling times were {8.7, 11.9, 10.0} days. In a second group of patients in whom the cells were cultured for a shorter period of time (cohort 2), the cell doubling times were {1.4, 1.0, 1.3, 1.0, 1.3, 2.0, 0.6, 0.8, 0.7, 0.9, 1.9} days. In a third group of patients (cohort 3), actively dividing cells were generated by performing a second rapid expansion via active cell transfer. Cell doubling times for cohort 3 were {0.9, 3.3, 1.2, 1.1} days.

  1. Create side-by-side boxplots of these data (so each boxplot uses the same y-axis).

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